Continues from the previous post –
Five years later Innocent's visitor is a Spaniard, Dominic de Guzman, who has much experience of preaching (to the Cathars) and a specific interest in correcting doctrinal error. Like Francis, he and his fellows have embraced poverty. They work amid the bustle and argument of the towns. They too are given Innocent's blessing. Some historians believe that, it was a very intelligent move to create impression on the critics of Roman Catholic Church that Bishop of Rome is not interested in wealth but he is interested in only message of Jesus, the trick worked well.
From these encounters are born the two orders of mendicant (or begging) friars, the Franciscans and the Dominicans. Western monasticism rediscovers a truth more often remembered in the east, in Hinduism and Buddhism - which the holy man's only possession is his begging bowl. However, neither mendicant orders, growing in power, could find the ideal of poverty easy. Their pretension did not work well. All these beggar friars had two faces, one of a beggar and the other of controlling wealth stealthily. This can be said because all their so-called beggarly movement was backed by wealth! Their beggarly show was only their face, the real color was of acquiring power over poor masses who are majority and they were poor. It was a perfectly planned political move on the part of pontificate.
The formal foundation of each order falls within the pontificate of Innocent's successor, Honorius III. He establishes the Dominicans in 1216 and the Franciscans in 1223.
This papal foundation distinguishes the religious from the more independent monastic orders, established in earlier centuries when the papacy was able to exercise only a relatively loose control. The two mendicant orders are seen and are used as an instrument of papal policy. They will be joined in this respect, after the crisis of the Reformation by a third and even more powerful order, that of the 'Jesuits'; they differ from the Dominicans and the Franciscans in not sharing their ideological devotion to poverty. Jesuit camp came into force when some of the clergy realized that this two-faced tactics should not continue to fool most people for long. So they became more aggressive, and then this third option came into existence. As Pope Gregory IX noticed this, he contacted Bishops from France and told them that he is sending some Dominican friars to help them in this necessary task of rooting out heretics. Inquisition (inquiry commission) was initiated by them in a very alarming manner.
The work of the Inquisition is accompanied from the start by alarming ceremonies. An inquisitor, arriving in a place where heresy is suspected, commands the local people to divulge what they know of their neighbors. The names of witnesses are concealed, so there is a strong temptation to settle scores. From 1252, by a bull of Innocent IV, suspects may be tortured to obtain confessions. At this time, confession was made compulsory to all attendants of Church. This method of inquisition is absolutely against the teachings of Jesus, in Mathews it says, (Mathew:6:5-9)
Mathews 6:5 “And when you pray, do not be like the hypocrites, for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and on the street corners to be seen by others. Truly, I tell you, they have received their reward in full.
Mathews 6:6 But when you pray, go into your room, close the door and pray to your Father, who is unseen. Then, your Father, who sees what is done in secret, will reward you.
Mathews 6:7 And when you pray do not keep on babbling like pagans, for they think they will be heard because of their many words.
Mathews 6:8 Do not be like them, for your Father knows what you need before you ask him.
Confession was made compulsory in Christian practice of Church during Inquisition by Pope Innocent IV (1252) to root out heretics who were opposing Church in Europe; even though, most of them were true followers of Jesus' ideology. Followers were tortured to death occasionally to get truth about other hiding heretics, out of them. That practice continued further in all Churches to protect its authority from infidels. Here infidel means those who oppose authority of Church even if they are true followers of Jesus' teachings, that did not make any difference and they were either tortured to punish them or excommunicated. In later period, this practice came handy as a tool to black mail people to yield them for the demands of Church whatever they are, particularly during crusades nobles were made to accept terms of Pope by this confession information. Initial attempts of inquisition did not work well as it was conducted by ordinary Dominican friars. Therefore, Pope appointed gamekeepers, who had nothing to do with teachings of Jesus, an example is that of Robert le Bougre, the most severe of those sent to France in 1233, was drawn into the sect as a young man for love of a Cathar girl. St Peter Martyr, appointed inquisitor for northern Italy by Gregory IX (and assassinated by a Cathar in 1252), was born into a Catharist family. Thus, Pope's activity had completely deviated from the original teachings of Jesus so much so that they had already lost any right to claim key to heaven that Jesus had given to St. Peter.
Continues in next post –
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